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which in little countries with limited territory and crude methods
of agriculture created a considerable class of poor citizens for
whom there was no land. In most of the States the struggle
between rich and poor brought about the downfall of the dominant
aristocracies and the rise of tyrants who championed the poor
against the rich. Sparta, more fortunate than the other States in
having recently acquired new territory by conquest, solved both
the social and the military problems by a division of the available
land into a number of allotments each capable of supporting a
heavy-armed soldier and his family when worked by State serfs,
and reorganized the whole life of the people with a view to making
a nation of soldiers on the old aristocratic basis.

With great practical wisdom Lycurgus, or whoever waa
responsible for this reorganization, recognised the fundamental
importance of an education in conformity with the military aims
of the State, and made a proper training in accordance with
Spartan traditions obligatory on every citizen. In the other
Greek States parents were allowed to educate their families much
as they pleased. But in Sparta no one who had not undergone the
statutory training could be a member of the citizen's clubs or
get a State allotment; and every detail of child life as well as
every detail of adult life was directly or indirectly controlled by
the State. The new-born child was examined by the local ciders,
and if found weakly, was either left to die of exposure or given
over to the helots. The boys who were approved were brought
up by their mothers for the first seven years of life, and then passed
from the control of the home into the control of the community*
From seven to eighteen they went through a graduated course of
training, which grew more severe at each new stage. At eighteen
they became ephebi (or cadets), and the menial part of the discipline
was dropped. They were then sent out into the country on
secret service to spy on the helots, and get their first experience
of soldiering on garrison duty. This probationary drill ended at
twenty, and they became eligible for election to the men's clubs ;
but it was ten years more before they could enjoy the full rights
of citizenship. Even then their training was not finished* They
were under obligation to go on practising the arts of war, and to
keep themselves in instant readiness for active service until
incapacitated by old age.

The whole character of the Spartan training was determined